ESRI Conservation Program Resources:
Government Agencies & Data Sources
Data, Data Access and the Web
Data, Data Access and the Web
Promoting a Free Access or Minimal Cost of Dissemination Arrangement for Government-Held Geographic Information Systems Data (1995 ESRI Conf. Abstract, Keene Matsunaga, Jack Dangermond) ...This paper focuses on the role that the governments play in providing public access to GIS data at a minimal cost of dissemination. It analyzes the First Amendment and the U.S. Copyright Act's underlying policies as they relate to the providing of public access to GIS data.
Information Center for the Environment: Public Access to Natural Resource Data (1996 ESRI Conf. Paper, Karen Beardsley and James F. Quinn)...The Information Center for the Environment (ICE) is housed in the Division of Environmental Studies at the University of California, Davis (UCD)...The goals of UCD ICE include providing GIS, database systems, and modeling support to environmental resource projects, and developing easy-to-use public access to a wide variety of environmental information. In support of these goals, UCD ICE staff have developed an interactive mapping query system known as ICE MAPS that allows World-Wide Web users to create and download customized maps.
Your Right to Know in the UK (1997 ERSI Paper, Susan Pipes, Friends of the Earth, 26-26 Underwood Street London, N1 7JQ UNITED KINGDOM, Telephone: 44-171-566-1637 Fax: 44-171-490-0881 E-mail: email@example.com) Defining Issue: Friends of the Earth (FOE) has been using spatial analysis as a campaigning tool for over six years. However, in order to maintain the integrity of our GIS research we need to have better access to the United Kingdom government's environmental information. Unlike in the United States there is no Freedom of Information Act in the U.K. at present, and it is the aim of this paper to chart the progress made by FOE and others in obtaining better access to environmental information in the U.K. - our legal challenges, our winning campaigns and our present battles. One Solution: The paper will give a live Internet demonstration of the clear example, FOE has set for the U.K. government in the provision of real access to environmental information. FOE has published the government's own Chemical Release Inventory , a complex database of chemical emissions recorded at U.K. factories, on the Internet via a mapping interface. By entering their post code (or ZIP Code) the user generates a map centered on their own home that identifies local factories. These can then be clicked on to discover emission levels from each individual factory. Voted the Best NNoncommercialSite by GIS World, FOE's version of the Chemical Release Inventory has revolutionized access to this information. In 1994/95 the U.K. government recorded 760 requests for this information. In 1995/96 FOE responded to 25,000 requests for the same information.
General US Govt Programs
The Federal Geographic Data Committee(FGDC) has assumed leadership in the evolution of the NSDI in cooperation with state and local governments, academia, and the private sector. FGDC Project Areas: Clearinghouse, Standards, Metadata, Framework, Cooperative Agreements, Partnerships. "ESTABLISHING ROOTS IN OUR LANDSCAPES OF COMPLEXITY"
FGDC National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse . The National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse is a distributed, electronically connected network of geospatial data producers, managers, and users. The clearinghouse will allow its users to determine what geospatial data exist, find the data they need, evaluate the usefulness of the data for their applications, and obtain or order the data as economically as possible.
FGDC National Vegetation Classification System Draft Vegetation Standards. "At present there is no Federal standard for the vegetation classification and reporting of vegetation statistics. However, there is broad recognition of the need to establish national definitions and classification standards that will facilitate a national synoptic view of the vegetation resources of the United States. This document proposes a standard for terminology, aspects of data and the vegetation classification system...The NVCS is largely the result of modifications to the vegetation classification system compiled and refined for resource management and conservation planning at The Nature Conservancy (TNC Ecology Working Group 1994, 1996 (in prep)). The upper five physiognomic levels of the TNC system (Class, Subclass, Group, Subgroup and Formation) are based on modifications by TNC Ecology Working Group of the UNESCO (1973) and Driscoll et al (1984) vegetation classification systems. The lower two floristic levels (Alliance and Community Association) have been developed and are periodically enhanced by the ongoing work of TNC and the network of State Heritage Programs (TNC Ecology Working Group 1996 (in prep)). " see also US NBS/NPS Vegetation Classification Standard. see also US FWS: Field Testing the FGDC's Vegetation Classification Standard .
Guide to On-line & mostly free U.S. Geospatial and Attribute data by Stephen Pollard, FGDC. This list of hundreds and hundreds of links "is representative of a minimal amount of effort spread out over several months the purpose of which was to provide a starting point when beginning to track down sources of digital geospatial data and attributes related to the US."
US National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) . The NBII will provide information on and access to biological databases, information products, directories, and guides maintained by Federal, State, and local government agencies, and private organizations...Report on State Biodiversity Database Survey: "The Biological Resources Division, Fish and Wildlife Information Exchange (FWIE), and Organization of Fish and Wildlife Information Managers have collaborated on a survey of State biodiversity databases. The survey results will be used to create an electronic directory of State biodiversity databases, which will be accessible on the NBII through the FWIE web site in the near future."
Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) . "an initiative of the Summit of the Americas to provide greater and more useful access to biodiversity information throughout the hemisphere. The establishment of IABIN was called for in Article 31 of the Action Plan arising from the Summit of the Americas on Sustainable Development, held in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December, 1996. "
The National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) is conceived to be an umbrella of policies, standards, and procedures under which organizations and technologies interact to foster more efficient use, management, and production of geospatial data. The major components of the NSDI currently under development include a basic framework of digital geospatial data to act as a foundation for numerous other data collection activities; known quality thematic data sets of critical national importance; standards to facilitate data collection, documentation, access, and transfer,and the means to search, query, find, access, and use geospatial data.
NSDI Framework of digital geospatial data . "GIS applications of many different disciplines have a recurring need for a few themes of data. The framework is a collaborative effort to produce and maintain these basic geographic data. "
Inter-American Geospatial Data Network (IGDN)s o . The Inter-American Geospatial Data Network (IGDN), supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), encourages environmentally sound, broad-based economic growth and free trade in the Western Hemisphere through improved access to geospatial data for business, NGOs, and governments in the region. ... Pan American Institute of Geography and History (PAIGH): PAIGH has created the "Status of Mapping in the Americas" index maps describing the availability of geospatial data throughout the Americas. The 1993 version has been created as an electronic version with each of the following categories. The 1997 version is being designed by the U.S. Geological Survey and printed by the Defense Mapping Agency and will be available through the Internet. ...1993 Status Of Mapping in the Americas Index Maps: (GIF images)Large Scale Maps, Intermediate/Small Scale Maps, Aeronautical Charts, Hydrographic Charts, Horizontal Geodesy, Large Scale Digital Data, Intermediate/Small Digital Data, Large Scale Images Maps, Intermediate/Small Scale Image Maps, Vertical Geodesy .
General US Govt Agencies
US Bureau of the Census, Tiger Mapping Service: online access to Census Tiger data in an interactive map browser: "The Map Surfer (or TIGER® Map Service) was built in 1995 as a proof of concept to see what it took to build a basic Web mapping application. It was never intended to be a general purpose mapping application to fill every mapping need...It was developed by adapting an existing piece of mapping software to create maps on the Internet. This test application was not completely documented as the Census Bureau never intended to disseminate it to the public. As written, the software is hardware specific and some components of the uncompiled source code used to generate the mapping engine have been lost...There are several commercial map packages available now that can provide Internet map images. We suggest that you look at some of these applications for models of this type of software. ..The map data used in the Map Surfer application is the Census Bureau's TIGER/Line '94 data set. For the continental U. S. the data is in the NAD 27 datum..The map images you can download from this site are in the public domain and you are free to use them as you choose. They are created on the fly and displayed on the screen in the GIF format which is a raster (or bit map) format. They aren't meant to be imported into other mapping or GIS packages. They can be imported into many graphics or paint packages where they can be further manipulated to a limited extent. If you want the base data for use in your GIS or other mapping package visit our TIGER® Page for information on the TIGER/Line® 1995 product."
US Bureau of Reclamation, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Group . ..."Typical GIS and remote sensing applications include those designed to monitor and analyze agricultural practices, natural vegetation, riparian ecology, water quality, wildlife and fisheries management, land suitability for irrigation, hydrology and water resources, social and economic change, and automated mapping and facilities management (am/fm)." Projects: Upper Colorado Basin Irrigated Lands, Glen Canyon Environmental Studies, Animas-LaPlata Wetland/Riparian Vegetation Classification and Inventory, NEXRAD Radar Calibration for Snow .
US Army Corps of Engineers
US Army Corps of Engineers node of the National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse . (Webmaster firstname.lastname@example.org ) The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has a server on the Internet on which they store and make available to all interested persons geospatial data and metadata. see also : Accessing Corps geospatial data and metadata .
US Army Corps of Engineers Geospatial Data Center . (Contact: Nancy Blyler, CECW-EP 202-761-8893 Washington, D.C. email@example.com) " This web site is the central point of information for the US Army Corps of Engineers Geospatial Data and Systems (GD&S) Program..Future Map: TEC's Prototype Interactive US Atlas is here! Great LINKS PAGE .
US Bureau of Reclamation Federal geospatial information sources:
USGS National Mapping Information . "The production of digital cartographic data and graphic maps comprises the largest component of the USGS National Mapping Program (NMP). Cartographic data are compiled from aerial photographs, other remotely sensed images, historical records, legal documents, and direct field observations and surveys and comply with standards of content, geometric accuracy, and presentation."
NRCS NSDI Node . Natural Resources Conservation Service soils data . "NRCS distributes Natural Resources Inventory, Plants, and Soils data to the general public. "
EPA GIS spatial data library system . ESDLS is a repository for the Agency's new and legacy geospatial data holdings. Users can access these data holdings through various GIS applications. ESDLS, which enables Agency access to its geospatial data in ArcInfo format, integrates these data in a standardized, consistent, and ssustainableframework.
EPA GIS Tools . EPA National Geographic Information Systems Tools and Projects.
EPA National GIS Program . "Protecting the environment is a job that is inherently geographic in nature. Achieving an informed understanding of the often complex spatial inter-relationships of natural resources and human population as they relate to the potential or known pollution sources is critical to successfully accomplishing the mission of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). "
USFWS National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) . USFWS Region 1 (Pacific) welcome page . BLM's agencywide GIS home page . Flood Insurance Rate Maps (Digital and Analog) . USGS's Global Land Information System (GLIS) . National Biological Survey's (NBII) Information Infrastructure page . The National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA) home page . National Geodetic Survey home page . National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) clearinghouse .
US Bureau of Land Management
BIA Geographic Data Service Center (GDSC), (3000 Youngfield St., Suite 230 Lakewood, CO 80215 . Voice: (303) 231-5100 Helpdesk: (303) 231-5120 Fax: (303) 231-5122 . firstname.lastname@example.org) . "The BIA Geographic Data Service Center (GDSC), located in Lakewood, Colorado, supports Indian Tribes and BIA personnel in the design, development and maintenance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and other spatially oriented databases. In addition, the GDSC builds and maintains spatial information, on a national level, for the BIA." MAPS SECTION . TTECHNICAL HELP DESK (303) 231-5120: "The GDSC provides FREE technical assistance to BIA and Tribal personnel through the Help Desk. The Help Desk is staffed from 7:00 AM to 5:00 PM (Mountain Time) by GDSC technical staff who are ready to answer questions on GIS software and applications, remote sensing applications, training, or other topics pertaining to the mission of the GDSC and the needs of our clients in Indian Country. Call us - we're here for you! "
US Bureau of Land Management
US Bureau of Land Management . "The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), an agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior, manages the remainder of the public domain -- a once vast expanse of land held in ownership by the United States Government for the American people...The 270 million surface acres under BLM management comprise one-eighth of America's land surface and amount to 41 percent of the land under Federal ownership..
US BLM Geospatial Information Center . The purpose of this page is to consolidate access to information about GIS which may be useful to the GIS community.
US BLM Geographic Coordinate Data Base (GCDB) . The GCDB is a portrayal of the Public Land Survey System. GCDB is computed from BLM survey records (Survey Plats and field notes) and other survey control. GCDB is computed on a township basis.
US BLM National Applied Resource Science Center . selected projects: Interagency Ecological Mapping Effort ( Develop with cooperating agencies a common spatial fframeworkfor defining ecological units of the United States. Blend the USFS, EPA, NRCS, and other approaches together as we can.), Implement integrated landscape analysis technology transfer initiative (Create a booklet that describes GIS techniques and methods used by BLM for integrated landscape resource analysis), Develop Forest Vegetation Information System. Downloadable ArcData: Western Utility Group (WUG) scanned constraint maps @1:750,000 for each western state , Land Status by State . Interesting GIS and GPS Projects List .
US BLM MetaData and WWW Mapping Home Page . Extensive annotated links.
Convert GPS data to ArcInfo coverages , US BLM Paper/AML by Trimble Navigation and Dan Martin .
US Environmental Protection Agency
US Environmental Protection Agency . The mission of the United States Environmental Protection Agency is to protect public health and to safeguard and improve the natural environment - air, water, and land - upon which human life depends. Don't miss their Environmental Atlas Web Site: , Including an Interactive Mapper . "Welcome to the environmental atlas of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This site offers an online environmental map collection, links to other important collections, and information to help you understand environmental quality maps, mapping, and environmental information."
EPA Environmental Quality Web Site . "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol M. Browner today unveiled an Internet Website that will allow citizens to easily obtain up-to-date, comprehensive, accurate environmental information about their communities simply by entering a zip code. The Website is part of the Clinton Administration's right-to-know programs that are designed to provide Americans with needed information about local pollution. "
State of the Environment Reports:
US EPA Node of the National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse . This node provides a pathway to find information about geospatial data available from the EPA. Geospatial data is used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to identify the geographic location and characteristics of natural or man-made features and boundaries on the earth. Hundreds of On-Line datasets :
US EPA Spatial Data Library System (ESDLS) . EPA Office of Information Resources Management (OIRM), along with the EPA GIS Work Group, developed the Environmental Protection Agency's Spatial Data Library System (ESDLS) that is a repository for the Agency's new and legacy geospatial data holdings. Users can access these data holdings through various Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications. ESDLS' primary objectives are: Provide the Agency with access to its geospatial data in ArcInfo format; Integrate its geospatial data in a standard, consistent, and ssustainableframework; Apply the appropriate standards and guidelines for management and use; Manage EPA geospatial data and associated GIS applications; Permit discovery and retrieval of EPA's geospatial data and associated GIS applications.
US EPA National GIS Program . ...The GIS Program is responsible for developing and maintaining an Agency-wide support network: participating in the review and evaluation of new GIS related technologies; promoting the sharing of GIS data, applications, and expertise; coordinating with external organizations concerning GIS and related geographic data activities; and serving as a focal point for GIS issues within the Agency. Projects include : OIRM/Enterprise Technical Services Division (ETSD) in Research Triangle Park, NC; Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); Ecosystems Initiatives: ( The Great Lakes; The Gulf of Mexico; The Chesapeake Bay.)
US EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program .The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is a research program to develop the tools necessary to monitor and assess the status and trends of national ecological resources. EMAP's goal is to develop the scientific understanding for translating environmental monitoring data from multiple spatial and temporal scales into assessments of ecological condition and forecasts of the future risks to the sustainability of our natural resources.
US EPA EMAP National Environmental Monitoring Initiative . The National Environmental Monitoring Initiative is linking large-scale survey information and remote sensing with ecological process research at a network of multi-resource, intensive monitoring areas. The result will be greater understanding of what controls ecosystem health at the regional scale, where resource management decisions are made. ...Currently, you can query our database of national environmental monitoring and research programs by a subset of sampling designs and measurements.
US Fish & Wildlife Service
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service GIS Home Page . see GIS Partnerships, Successes and Current Applications for stories on Great Bay, NH and Casco Bay, ME . Examples of GIS-GPS integration, including Gulf of Maine Coastal Ecosystems Program, Connecticut River Watershed, Klamath Basin Ecosystem and many others . Gulf of Maine project is set to launch an IMS server site soon. See Also: Identification of Important Habitats in Coastal New Hampshire (by Arnold Banner and Gerald Hayes, part of the Gulf of Maine Program) "We used gis to create grids of bathymetry, temperature and salinity gradients, and substrate, then used these parameters to create maps for a number of marine/estuarine organisms. "
US FWS National Wetlands Inventory . The National Wetlands Inventory plans, directs, coordinates, and monitors the gathering, analysis, dissemination, and evaluation of information relating to the location, quantity, and ecological importance of the Nation's wetlands.The Fish and Wildlife Service has prepared a National List of Vascular Plant Species That Occur in Wetlands: 1996 National Summary . NWI GIS Section: Converting NWI DLG3 data to ArcInfo coverages.., An exercise for converting NWI dlg data to ArcView shape files.., Downloadable Data : The National Wetlands Inventory has many products that may be down loaded from our internet site. You may access these products by clicking on the "download data" text near the bottom of this page. Here is a list of the directories that contain products that may be of value to our users: dlgdata - All available NWI 7.5' quad maps that have been digitized and converted to dlg (digital line graph) format.
US Forest Service
USDA Forest Service Databases . GMDigest (gypsy moth suppression, eradication, and defoliation database), The Hopkins U.S. System Index-HUSSI, USDA GGovernmentInformation Locator Service, Fire Effects Information System, Forest Inventory and Analysis National Database Retrieval System, Land Areas of the National Forest System, Autocad Drawing Library
US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis National Database Retrieval System . Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) research units have participated in establishing a National Data Base Retrieval System (DBRS)....FIA research units also have made the (tree,plot,county) Eastwide/Westwide data available for downloading.
US Geological Survey
US Geological Survey . The mission of the USGS is to provide geologic, topographic, and hydrologic information that contributes to the wise management of the Nation's natural resources and that promotes the health, safety, and well-being of the people. This information consists of maps, databases, and descriptions and analyses of the water, energy, and mineral resources, land surface, underlying geologic structure, natural hazards, and dynamic processes of the earth. See: New USGS Search Engine - Does a full-text search of all registered USGS Web servers.
USGS Land Resources Section . links page to all USGS environment sections. Main areas: Ecosystems and Management, Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants, Global Change, Policy and Guidance
USGS Information Management Section . Featured Information Collection, Information Discovery, Products, Information Policy, Coordination, Standards
US National Park Service
.(see under ECP Parks list)
US National Imagery & Mapping Agency
US National Imagery & Mapping Agency . "NIMA provides timely, relevant, and accurate imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information in support of national security objectives....NIMA incorporates the Defense Mapping Agency , the Central Imagery Office, and the Defense Dissemination Program Office in their entirety; and the mission and functions of the CIA's National Photographic Interpretation Center." . Projects : Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED®) Level 0, Geodesy and Geophysics (G&G), Geospatial IPT Home Page, GEOnet Names Server, Terrain Modeling Project Office (TMPO), DMAMUSE 2.0 Software Tools, Public Map and Chart Sales, Geodesy for the Layman.
US NIMA Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED®) Level 0 : "In support of military applications, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) has developed a standard digital dataset (Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED®) Level 0) which may be of value to scientific, technical, and other communities...This data set may be freely copied, manipulated, adapted or combined with other geospatial information as desired by the user. It allows a gross representation of the Earth's surface for general modeling and assessment activities." At this site, you can select individual 30x30 ddegreecells for download or direct viewing.
US Natural Resources Conservation Service
US NRCS Data Clearinghouse : Datasets available: Earth Cover/Vegetation (PLANTS Projects), Hydrography (Mapping and Digitizing Watershed and Subwatershed Hydrologic Unit Boundaries), 1992 National Resources Inventory (NRI), Soils, Water and Climate, Aerial Photography, Census Data , Digital Elevation Model Data, Digital Oortho-photography World Data (Countries Ecosystems Elevation Land Areas Soil Types Vegetation).
USGS Biological Resources Division/National Biological Survey
Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey (NBS). The BRD mission is to work with others to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources. A fundamental part of our mission is embodied in our deep commitment to make data and information on the Nation's biological resources more accessible to more people....National Programs: Arctic Science Program :A cooperative program of research on landscapes and species (bird, mammal, and fish) in the arctic and subarctic ecosystems. Biomonitoring Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) :A program designed to identify and understand the effects of environmental contaminants on biological resources. Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) :The North American Bird Banding Program is jointly administered by the United States Biological Resource Division and the Canadian Wildlife Service to study the movement, survival, and behavior of birds. Earth Stewards :Earth Stewards is a three year pilot program that provides teachers with new ways to engage students in science by offering hands-on activities, pprofessional mentors and community stewardship projects. GAP Analysis: A geographic approach for assessing the current protection status of biological diversity over large geographic areas. Global Change Research Program :Several Global Change Research Program databases described using the 1/25/94 version of the Spatial Metadata Content Standard. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (GCRP) contributes to an understanding of the processes and impacts of global climate change. Interagency Taxonomic Information System :A standard reference on nomenclature and taxonomy of plants and animals. Information Resources Management Program :The Information Resources Management Program includes telecommunications, networking, office automation, records management, computer security, email, distributed data systems, applications technologies, and the training, procurement, and technology research necessary to support these activities. Land Use History of North America :A multi-year project to prepare a scientifically-based "history" of land use change across North America, from prehistoric times to the present.Lower Rio Grande Ecosystem Initiative:The aim of this initiative is to broaden our understanding of the ecology of North America's most international river. Man And the Biosphere Program Fauna database :Fauna species lists for Biosphere Reserves. National Ecological Surveys Team (NEST) :NEST evaluates ecological inventory mmonitoringand analysis programs, designs nationwide species and population monitoring surveys, develops methods for the analysis of resulting data to estimate the status and trends of the nnation'sbiotic diversity, and maintains partnerships for analysis and management with cooperating organizations. National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) :. North American Breeding Bird Survey :A source of population trend and distribution information for most species of North American birds. NNon-indigenous Aquatic Species Program :A national information resource for accurate and spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of Non-indigenous aquatic species. NPFlora and NPFauna databases :Databases of vertebrate and vascular plant occurrences in the National Parks. Species at Risk :A program that develops information that will lead to the stabilization of declining populations and reduce or eliminate the need for additional listings under the Endangered Species Act. Status and Trends :Information on published reports concerning the status and trends of biological resources in the United States. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program :A Federal Interagency program providing an interdisciplinary approach to address environmental problems, land use, and conservation issues. Vegetation Mapping Program :A multi-year project to produce vegetation maps of 235 natural resources parks within the National Park System (see under ECP parks section). Biosphere Reserves in Action: Case Studies of the American Experience :Lower Missouri River Ecosystem Initiative :The wide variety of information generated under this initiative is deepening our knowledge of the biological resources of the Lower Missouri River. Southern Appalachian Ecosystem :The Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program (SAMAB) is a consortium of Federal and State Agencies working in partnership to promote ecosystem management and sustainable development in the Southern Appalachian Regional Biosphere Reserve. SEARCH .
USGS Center for Biological Informatics .(USGS Biological Resources Center for Biological Informatics Denver Federal Center, Building 810 Room 8000, MS 302 Denver, CO 80225-0046 303/202-4220 (office) 303/202-4219 (fax) GIS contacts: Ralph Root 303/202-4232 (office) 303/202-4219 (fax) E-mail: email@example.com, Susan Stitt 303/202-4234 (office) 303/202-4219 (fax) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Karl Brown 303/202-4240 (office) 303/202-4219 (fax) E-mail: email@example.com ) " Programs they support include the following, (described in more detail above): Geospatial Technology Program, Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), Land Use History of North America (LUHNA), National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), National Technical Means Program (NTM), State Partnership Program, Taxonomic Resources and Expertise Directory (TRED), USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program .
USGS CLIMET Program (David L. Peterson, Research Biologist, Forest and Rangeland Ecosys. Science Center, Cascadia Field Station, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195 206.543.1587 (voice), 206.685.0790 (fax) email:firstname.lastname@example.org AND Daniel B. Fagre, Research Ecologist, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, Glacier Field Station, West Glacier, MT 59936, 406.888.7993 (voice), 406.888.7990 (fax) email:email@example.com) . "How will mountain ecosystems in the northwestern United States be affected by climatic variability in the 21st century? That is the fundamental question guiding CLIMET (Climate-Landscape Interactions on a Mountain Ecosystem Transect), a multidisciplinary research effort directed by U. S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS-BRD) scientists in Washington and Montana. "
USGS BRD Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center .(2630 Fanta Reed Road La Crosse, WI 54602-0818 Phone: (608) 783-6451) .."The Environmental Center freely shares a wide range of biological, physical, spatial, and technical data and information relating to the Upper Mississippi River System. Established in 1986 as a center for ecological monitoring and analysis, the Environmental Center manages the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program which is the largest river-related inventory, monitoring, research, spatial analysis, and information sharing program in the United States....the mission of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program is to provide decision makers with the information needed to maintain the Upper Mississippi River System as a viable multiple-use large river ecosystem."
USGS BRD Cascadia Field Station (College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, Washington 98195-2100, Telephone: (206) 543-1587 (office) Fax: (206) 685-0790 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ) "Field Station scientists study the biological and social aspects of resource management issues in national parks and other protected areas on public lands throughout the Northwest and beyond. " Current top project: Climate Landscape Interactions on a Mountain Ecosystem Transect . Projects: Global Climate Change, Air Pollution Impacts, Fire Ecology, Inventory and Monitoring of Natural Resources .
USGS BRD Florida Caribbean Science Center .(7920 NW 71st Street Gainesville, FL 32653-307 . Tel:352.378.8181 Fax:352.374.8080) "Our Center recognizes an urgent need for research to improve understanding and managment of ecological problems unique to aquatic ecosystems, including freshwater, coastal estuarine, and coral reef systems. Projects: Non-indigenous Aquatic Species Program, Zebra Mussel Page, Herpetology Project, Sirenia (Manatees) Project, South Florida/Caribbean Ecosystem Research Group, Biodiversity and Habitat Conservation of Southeastern Freshwater Fishes, South Florida Fire Ecology Project, Contaminants and Mussel Culture Research. Greater Everglades Ecosystems ." Geospatial Applications Site : Non-indigenous Aquatic Species Repository "central repository for accurate and spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of Non-indigenous aquatic species. Provided are Distribution Maps, Clickable query maps, scientific reports, online/realtime queries, spatial data sets, regional contact lists, and general information...The primary geographical coverage is North America however other regions may be included as the need arises. "
USGS BRD Glacier Bay Field Station, Ak, e98 . (P.O. Box 140, Gustavus, AK 99826 tel:(907) 697-2230 FAX (907) 697-2654 GIS Contact: Philip N. Hooge, Ph.D. Research Ecologist mailto:email@example.com ) "The Field Station primarily focuses its research on the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on and the natural variation within the Glacier Bay ecosystem, with emphasis on the marine environment. The Glacier Bay ecosystem is characterized by large spatial and temporal differences in physical and biological factors, driven not only by the recent history of glaciation and catastrophic glacial retreat but also by complex fjord estuarine dynamics. " SPATIAL TOOLS is a free ArcView extension (by Philip N. Hooge) that contains a collection of 32 tools that extend the capabilities of Spatial Analyst. The majority of tools are implementations of functions available in spatial analyst from Avenue programming or awkwardly in the map calculator but not from the menu, button, or tool interface. These include functions to clean up, assemble, aggregate, warp and analyze grids. ANIMAL MOVEMENT ANALYSIS ArcView EXTENSION: (by P. N. Hooge and B. Eichenlaub. 1997) "is a collection of over 40 functions to aid in the analysis of animal movement data. The motivation for the creation of this program was the absence of a collection of tools with real integration into a GIS (Geographic Information System). In addition, several functions in this program had not been implemented before or were specifically developed to address author specific research problems. The ArcView software program was chosen for development because of high degree of integration of its GIS environment, the ability to work with a wide variety of spatial data formats, compatibility with many computer platforms, and the capability of its object oriented scripting language Avenue. "
USGS BRD Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland . ( 12100 Beech Forest Road, Suite 4039 Laurel, Maryland 20708-4039 USA Telephone: 301-497-5500 Fax: 301-497-5505 General Email: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org) "Scientific Themes: Status and Trends of Biological Resources, Status and Trends of Biological Resources, Effects of Ecological Processes and Human Impacts, Restoration and Maintenance of Ecological Systems, Management and Transfer of Natural Resources Information and Technology, North American Breeding Bird Survey, Bird Banding Laboratory, Bird Monitoring, Migratory Birds, Waterfowl Projects, North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP), Populations at Risk, Contaminants Projects, Chesapeake Bay Projects, Invasive Species. Inventory and Monitoring Programs: The goal of these pages and those which follow are to:Provide reliable information on the status and trends of the nation's biota; Identify populations, species, and ecosystems at risk before they become threatened or endangered; Determine the factors causing the observed trends; and Provide tools for forecasting future trends based on alternative policy and management decisions. Biological Software Links:, How to Create a Monitoring Program , Case Studies for Monitoring Programs . How Many Samples do you Need to Track Changes in Plants and Animals? Answer!: Power Analysis Program for evaluating monitoring programs and determining effective parameters.. See also: Frogwatch USA . Summary of Amphibian Decline Issues . Marshbird Monitoring Web Site . Terrestrial Salamander Monitoring Program . Amphibian Meeting on Monitoring and Deformed Frogs . Raptor Monitoring Strategy . Maps of Bird Abundance During Migration (by Sam Droege and Charles Wetherill ) . NEW from Ian Thomas (email@example.com): Watershed GIRAS/LULC Landuse Atlas of the United States (1970's Data, from the Color Landuse Atlas of the US) . . . Shenadoah National Park 7.5 min Vegetation and Topographic Map Server . . . . .Landsat TM Atlas of Guatemala & Belize :"These Landsat images were obtained from USAID as part of the United Nations Tropical Forestry Action Plan (late 1980's) and from the Nature Conservancy's archives (Belize scenes, early 1990's)."
USGS BRD Patuxent Wildlife Research Center : Wildlife Population Information--Management and Transfer : "Management of the North American Bird Banding Program, Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: standard methods, Migration routes and winter ranges of Nearctic migrant birds, Behavior and ecology of birds with emphasis on tropical areas, Snake Species of the World - A taxonomical and geographical reference, Computerization of the Biological Survey Locality File and geographical coding of the Vertebrate Collections in the National Museum, Coordination of the North American Breeding Bird Survey, Development of a National Bird Monitoring Data Center,
NBS Software FTP Site - Includes software for banding entry, banding data, brownie, capture, contrast, distance, estimate, hawk migration monitoring, jolly-seber, power analysis for monitoring programs, survival estimation, and telemetry work.
USGS BRD Gap Analysis Program
US BRD Gap Analysis Program, University of Idaho e93. "A Geographic Approach to Planning for Biological Diversity"..The mission of the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native vertebrate species and natural land cover types and to facilitate the application of this information to land management activities...Approach: Vegetation is mapped from satellite imagery and other records using the National Vegetation Classification System (FGDC 1996). Native animal species ranges are mapped by using museum and agency specimen collection records in conjunction with known general ranges and the animal’s affiliation with the previously mapped vegetation types and other physical characteristics. These data are combined and displayed with a computerized geographic information system (GIS) at a cartographic scale of 1:100,000. Maps of vegetation types, individual species, or selected suites of species (depending on one’s interest) are overlain on maps of land ownership and land management, showing where land-based conservation efforts can be focused to achieve the conservation of selected elements of biodiversity most efficiently, preventing both conservation crises and land-use surprises...Detailed descriptions of methods : Handbook...GAP Datasets in ArcInfo format are widely available through the GAP State Projects.
US BRD California GAP Analysis Project Bulletin . .."Currently lacking is an overview of the management status of species and communities both statewide and in the western U.S. as a whole. Our Geographic Information System (GIS) -based Gap Analysis of biodiversity in California is part of a national program of state and regional gap analyses being coordinated by the National Biological Service." GAP Data can be downloaded by region for : TM Satellite Image, Vegetation Map, Digital Elevation Model.
Washington Gap Analysis home page . (Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Washington., Box 357980, Seattle, WA 98195 tel:(206)543-6475 , Contacts: Kelly Cassidy, Ph.D. (206) 685-4195 firstname.lastname@example.org, Karen Dvornich (206) 543-6475 email@example.com, Christian Grue, Ph.D. (206) 543-6475 firstname.lastname@example.org, Michael Smith, M.S. Now with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Carlsbad, CA ) . "Gap Analysis is a process of identifying areas of high conservation priority. It is designed to be a proactive approach to conservation. Gap relies on information about current landcover and terrestrial vertebrates to identify habitat types and species that are poorly represented on reserves. Our land cover map was made from satellite Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1991. We delineated areas of similar vegetation using the satellite images as a guide. Our minimum mapping unit (i.e., the smallest patch we mapped) was 100 hectares (or about the size of Green Lake, for those familiar with Seattle). The distribution of breeding vertebrates was modeled using known range limits and habitat association. Programs written for ArcInfo select suitable habitat for each species, and then refine it by geographic and elevation limits based on knowledge of each species. The resulting maps are combined to provide maps showing centers of diversity, which can be overlaid with land ownership maps to determine areas of need for preserving all species. The point of Gap Analysis is to try to determine critical habitat before it becomes 'critical', and before its fauna becomes endangered." See also: The NatureMapping Program .
Scholarly papers and ESRI Conference Proceedings
(Legend: ESRI User Conference Papers list the title, then in parentheses "paper" or "abstract" plus the year. Other web-located papers list title, author if known, and excerpt.)
Applying GAP Analysis Data to Land Use Planning and Development of a Bioinformation Node . (1997 ESRI Paper: Thomas Kohley Wyoming Water Resources Center PO Box 3067 University Station Laramie, WY 82071 Telephone: 307-766-2734 Fax: 307-766-3785 E-mail: email@example.com) Defining Issue: Ecoregional data sets and analyses can inform local government land use planning, but the data must be easily accessible and usable. Ultimate biodiversity must be conserved at the site scale; thus, this project provides "biological extension" services to data users and provides examples of how to apply the data. GIS Solution: Development of an interactive CD ROM and an Internet "bioinformation node" provide access to Statewide biological data for desktop platforms. ArcView tools are developed to provide a simple interface for biodiversity decision making on a daily basis. Methodology: GAP data combined with other base coverages and other biological databases are served over the Internet as a bioinformation node. The data is also published on CD ROM. The extension "agent" uses a laptop-based ArcView demonstration to train users in application of the data to their decision making process. Additionally, an ArcView-based decision support system is developed for local government planners to integrate biodiversity concerns in planning and review processes. Software: This project is conducted with ESRI ArcInfo and ArcView. The purpose is to present models for bioinformation nodes for other states and regions, decision support systems for local government planning, and extension services for biological information and applications.
ArcInfo Applications in the Antarctic Program of the National Science Foundation (1996 ESRI Conf. Abstract, Cheryl A. Hallam)...The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been active in Antarctic mapping and research for more than thirty years. Work has included geologic and hydrologic research, as well as topographic and satellite image mapping. During the last decade, mapping activities have expanded to include the production of digital cartographic data....
Computerization of the Biological Survey Locality File and geographical coding of the Vertebrate Collections in the National Museum, Roy W. McDiarmid, BRD Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: 12100 Beech Forest Road, Suite 4039, Laurel, Maryland 20708-4039 USA, Telephone: 301-497-5500 Fax: 301-497-5505) . "Starting in 1885 the Biological Survey collected specimens of vertebrates to inventory and document the natural resources of North America. More than 800,000 specimens resulted (curated by NBS museum personnel) were and continue to be the basis for hundreds of scientific papers on vertebrate systematics and ecology and a tremendous source of distributional and temporal data about the North American fauna. While most specimen records are available electronically, only a few include latitude and longitude; therefore, this resource is only marginally useful for GIS and other mapping applications....We proposed to build an electronic copy of the Biological Survey locality file, enhance each record with coordinate data from the Geographic Names Information System (the U.S. Geological Survey's Board of Geographic Names digital gazetteer) and establish a protocol to associate geocoordinates with specimen records in the National Museum. Completion of the project will make thousands of records of National Museum specimens available for use in GIS and similar projects by the NBS and other partner organizations." .
CONSERVATION GAP: Applying GAP Analysis to Small Area Management: Two Projects from Idaho . (1997 ESRI Paper: Nancy Wright University of Idaho Fish & Wildlife Cooperative Research Unit Univeristy of Idaho/College of Forestry Moscow, ID 83843, Telephone: 208-885-5788 Fax: 208-885-9080 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org , Jason Karl, Troy Merrill ) . Defining Issue: The use of GAP Analysis to assess biodiversity at the regional level has gained wide acceptance, but most management and planning is conducted locally for small areas. Inappropriate use of regional GAP models at the local level may result in erroneous estimations of biodiversity. New approaches are needed to apply GAP to local level analysis. GIS Solution: Landscape Dynamics Lab uses ARCGRID modeling with vector overlays to demonstrate how data at various scales and resolutions can be combined to address local planning needs. Accuracy is demonstrated using two data sets from Idaho. Methodology: Two separate applications of GAP data conducted for the State of Idaho and local agencies are included in this presentation. Both projects were completed on ArcInfo Version 7.0.4 on Sun SPARC UNIX workstations. The Latah County Planning and Zoning Commission requested maps of the County's critical habitat including wetland and riparian zones, approximate tree size within forested land, and an estimation of species richness across the County. The critical habitat information would be referenced in their zoning decisions. A rasterized vegetation basemap at 30 m MMU was reclassified into primary shrub, grass, and forest habitats. Riparian and wetland zones were identified from vector stream and soil overlays. Species richness was derived from the combined presence of vertebrate species within the primary habitats. The final product provided a spatial foundation for land use planning that considered the criticalness of biodiversity within the County. Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area, within the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, requested wildlife/habitat relationship models for their estimated 200 terrestrial vertebrate species. Predicted species distribution maps would be used to monitor habitat while implementing land management objectives and providing recreation facilities within the 100,000 acre WMA. A rasterized vegetation basemap at 30 m MMU was overlaid with stream data from 7.5 min. USGS digital quads. Adaptations of the GAP wildlife/habitat relationship models were run in ARCGRID. Accuracy assessment included expert review and field survey data for breeding birds and woodpeckers. The final product included a hardcopy atlas and an interactive CD-ROM for use in ArcView. Software: These applications were written in ARC Macro Language to run on ARCGRID. The applications demonstrate methods of combining polygon coverages with rasterized basemaps to achieve spatial accuracy in small area applications of GAP.
Implementation of the Pacific Northwest Forest Plan: An Example of Interorganizational GIS Coordination (1995 ESRI Conf. Abstract, Duane R. Dippon) All of the Federal agencies responsible for, or involved with, implementation of the Northwest (President's) Forest Plan signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in February 1994, which stated as a common vision "...to establish a seamless current, consistent and accessible information network to support ecosystem management".
Interactive CD Product for the National Biological Survey Gap Analysis Program (1995 ESRI Conf. Paper, Douglas Wight, Allan Falconer, Collin Homer, Scott Basset, R. Douglas Ramsey, Thomas C. Edwards) ...Gap analysis is a US Department of Interior, National Biological Service program to define and map the diversity of terestrial animal species. As the process of the Utah Gap Analysis proceeded, the need for a well managed, accessible database available to the user community was obvious.
Interagency Cooperation in Information Management: Why, Why Not, and some ideas on How*, Jeff Waldon, Project Leader Fish and Wildlife Information Exchange . "Without the information to make good decisions, rational management of natural resources is not possible. Acquiring, managing, and distributing appropriate information for biodiversity and land management issues is an expensive and time-consuming job. Although the research capability in the United States is producing more information than ever, presumably for managers, our ability to synthesize and apply that information has only recently advanced to a stage where reasonably useful systems are available to access the information in a useful timeframe. "
Ecosystem Characterization and Assessment in the Interior Columbia River Basin (1995 ESRI Conf. Paper, John Steffenson) ...The final goal of this project was to identify high-value natural resources so local, state, and federal agencies can develop a resource protection management plan based on information provided by this analysis. Criteria used in this analysis included unfragmented natural land, undeveloped lake shorelines and river banks, high-value wetlands, rare and endangered species habitat, old growth forest, and other wildlife habitats. USGS 1:24,000 road coverages, land use data derived from Landsat TM images, and census data were used to derive fragmentation information. Ranking criteria for unfragmented natural land included size, habitat type, and population density.
Introduction to the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) . (1997 ESRI Paper: Patrick Crist GAP Analysis Program 530 S Asbury St Suite 1 Moscow, ID 83843, Telephone: 208-885-3901 Fax: 208-885-3618 E-mail: email@example.com , Michael Jennings ) . Defining Issue: Conservation of biodiversity requires the development of GIS data on land cover, animal distribution, and land stewardship; analyzed and interpreted for landowners, managers, planners, and decision makers. GIS Solution: GAP is one of the most demanding GIS projects ever launched with a full involvement of remote sensing technology for land cover mapping, GIS modeling and spatial analysis, and database storage and analysis. Delivery of data over the Internet and by CD ROM is also pushing the electronic publishing frontier. Methodology: Development of the biological data sets and stewardship maps (ownership and management status for biodiversity conservation) provides the public with estimates of the representation of plant communities and animal species (elements) on lands managed for biodiversity maintenance. "GAPS" are those elements that are insufficiently represented and may be at risk of endangerment in the future unless changes in their management status are made. The data sets have thus far been used for numerous applications for both conservation and development planning, as well as scientific research. GAP is conducted in cooperation with over 400 institutions from all state and federal land management agencies, academia, nonprofit, and industry groups. Software: The individual GAP projects conduct the project using a variety of software packages including ESRI ArcInfo, ERDAS, Intergraph, SPECTRUM, PCI Oracle, dBASE, and GRASS, among others. The purpose of this presentation is to provide participants with an overview of the program structure, status, operations, goals, methods, and products. We will identify methods to access and use the data including access through the Internet.
Louisiana GAP Analysis Project: Usage of Auxiliary Data Sets . (1997 ESRI Paper: Steve Hartley U.S. Geological Survey 700 Cajundome Boulevard Lafayette, LA 70506 , Telephone: 318-266-8543 Fax: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org , Jimmy Johnston, Pat O'Neil ) . Good ancillary data sets are rare. Fortunately, Louisiana is blessed with an abundance of good quality auxiliary data sets. The most important of these data sets is the National Wetlands Inventory data, which cover approximately one-third of the southern half of the State. The Louisiana GAP Project is using these data in conjunction with Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery to produce a vegetation map of the State. The merging of these two data sets is not arbitrarily straightforward. One must consider the origin and format of the two different data sets. One data set is vector (NWI) and produced by photointerpretation of aerial photography, and the other is raster (TM) from satellite imagery. In order to merge the two data sets, the NWI Cowardin classification scheme had to be reclassified to the Louisiana GAP classification scheme and converted from vector to a raster data format. This procedure allows the two different data sets to be merged into one; however, it does not take into account the spatial resolution of the two different data sets or the temporal changes between the sets. Temporal changes were limited to change in upland forest evergreen and mixed categories along the merge line between the two different data sets. In order to accommodate these differences we had to subset the NWI upland forest evergreen and mixed categories and integrate TM imagery for further processing. The poster depicts several output steps used to produce the final merge of classified NWI and TM data sets. Other auxiliary data sets used in the Louisiana GAP vegetation classification include 1995 color infrared photography (CIR), SPOT data, and ground truthing data. These data sets are of significant help to classify the TM imagery.
Procedures for collection, analysis, and display of data collected at several geographic scales , John R. Sauer, BRD Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: 12100 Beech Forest Road, Suite 4039 Laurel, Maryland 20708-4039 USA Telephone: 301-497-5500 Fax: 301-497-5505 ) "We propose to investigate procedures for collecting and summarizing information at several geographic scales....Managers will be able to access information from the projects using Internet. Placing these data sources into a common GIS framework will allow an assessment of the relative importance of information collected at different scales for addressing management issues at each scale, and will allow us to understand better the constraints on use of information collected at each scale."
A Proposed Protocol for Identifying Potential Research Natural Areas with Gap Analysis Data . (1997 ESRI Paper: Max Moritz University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060, Telephone: 805-893-7815 Fax: 805-893-3146 E-mail: email@example.com , David Stoms, Mark Borchert, Frank Davis ) . Defining Issue: The U.S. Forest Service attempts to establish Research Natural Areas (RNAs) to represent vegetation communities, yet there is no formal protocol for selecting the best sites. GIS Solution: We have developed a procedure using several ArcInfo functions (both raster and vector) to identify, characterize, and select potential RNA sites. Methodology: The land cover and land management GIS coverages from the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) are used to identify the set of sites with the vegetation community for all types that occur primarily on national forest lands. Each of these sites is characterized with regard to its environmental properties such as elevation and precipitation. All sites are then rated for their suitability as potential RNAs as a function of the spatial extent of the target type in a watershed and its representation of the type regionally. An optimization model is applied to select the most efficient set of highly suitable sites to represent all types. The protocol is illustrated with an example for four mixed evergreen forest types in the Los Padres National Forest of the central coast of California. Software: This application used a combination of ARC GRID functions to do the query, characterization, and optimization analysis.
The Southern Appalachian Assessment GIS (1996 ESRI Conf. Paper, Karl A. Hermann)...In October, 1994, the cooperating partners of the multiagency Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program (SAMAB) decided to collaborate on an assessment of the status and condition of the ecological resources in the Southern Appalachian Region. ...The GIS effort included the identification, compilation, integration, and analysis of ecological and supporting data for the assessment activities.
Supporting Search for Spatial Data on the Internet: What it means to be a Clearinghouse Node (1996 ESRI Conf. Paper, Douglas D. Nebert, Clearinghouse Coordinator Federal Geographic Data Committee U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 590 Reston, VA 22092 Telephone: (703) 648-4151 Fax: (703) 648-5755 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) has been facilitating the accessibility of digital spatial information on the Internet among federal and state organizations. By Executive Order of the President, all agencies are required to document their digital spatial data and make it available to the public to encourage re-use of expensive information. The National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse is a FGDC-sponsored activity that provides a series of technical solutions to making spatial data discoverable on the Internet. The Clearinghouse is an implementation of concepts that define service within the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). This paper describes the requirements for a site to be considered a service node within the National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse.
Using GIS for Automated Selection of Significant Natural Areas of California . (1997 ESRI Paper: Lora Konde State of California 1220 S Street Sacramento, CA 95814 , Telephone: 916-445-5758 Fax: 916-324-0475 E-mail: LKONDE@dfg.ca.gov ) . Defining Issue: California Assembly Bill 1039 requires the Department of Fish and Game to meet five goals relating to natural diversity: (1) Develop and maintain a data management system for natural resources, (2) identify the most significant natural areas in California, (3) ensure the recognition of these areas, (4) seek the long-term perpetuation of these areas, and (5) provide coordinating services for other public agencies and private organizations interested in protecting natural areas. Determination of Significant Natural Areas (SPA) within California needed to be automated so that current information would be available to agencies for use in planning and protection. GIS Solution: Using the California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB) and ArcInfo, an AML was developed to determine which element occurrences from the CNDDB meet the criteria for a Significant Natural Area. An SPA region coverage is created, identifying the element occurrences that comprise each SPA. This coverage can then be updated as new information is added to the CNDDB. Methodology: Oracle SQL scripts were written to extract any potential element occurrence records from the CNDDB that meet the criteria for a SPA. SNAs are identified using biological and spatial criteria. The following are the criteria used to select SNAs: -Areas supporting extremely rare species or natural communities -Areas supporting associations or concentrations of rare species or communities -Areas exhibiting representative examples of common or rare communities -Areas of high species richness or habitat richness ArcInfo is then used to reselect element occurrences that meet proximity and area criteria by using buffers, reselects, unions, frequencies, and statistics. Additional coverages are unioned with the SPA region coverage to identify SNAs that are in developed or disturbed areas. Cursors are used for automating a unique site number for each SPA. Software: SQL scripts written for Oracle, and AML, using the ARC and ARCPLOT modules. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how GIS solved the problem and met the need for automating and updating the selection of Significant Natural Areas.
The Wilderness Society's Center for Landscape Analysis: Outreach and Cooperation Efforts (1995 Paper, Susan E. Balikov) ...The Wilderness Society's (TWS) GIS and remote sensing program, The Center for Landscape Analysis, has grown into a strong contributor to the national and regional conservation efforts of many organizations. This paper will describe past, current and future efforts to cooperate with, and contribute to, the work of these organizations.
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July 19, 2000